In his book Simply Better: Doing What Matters Most to Change the Odds for Student Success, Bryan Goodwin describes a now famous 1965 study conducted by Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson:
A group of teachers were told that some of the students in their classrooms had been identified by a special Harvard test as being “gifted”—or in their words, “On the brink of rapid intellectual and academic development.”
What the teachers didn’t know was that 1) there was no test and 2) these “gifted” students were the results of a random selection. When the experiment concluded, Rosenthal and Jacobson found that many of these students who had been randomly labeled “gifted” were actually demonstrating higher IQs than their peers. What this seems to suggest is that teachers’ expectations do impact student success.
Those skeptical of Rosenthal’s and Jacobson’s findings will learn that a 2009 study by John Hattie echoed their conclusions:
Teacher expectations do impact student achievement. How much? We don’t know. What we do know is that research shows that there are effective and ineffective ways of motivating our students.
We’ve all encountered students who, no matter what we do, refuse to apply themselves. We know that they’re perfectly capable of meeting (and exceeding) our expectations, so we pull them aside and say, “Joe, I know you’re smart and you can do well. All you have to do is apply yourself.”
When we do this, certainly our heart is in the right place, but according to Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck, telling students they are smart actually lowers their motivation and achievement.
During a study, Dweck and her colleagues divided students into two groups; each was treated differently:
At the conclusion of the study, Dweck found that the students who were continually praised developed a “fixed-mindset” and began to believe that their intelligence was innate. As a result, they began to fear failure and thus avoided challenging tasks.
However, 90 percent of the students in the second group took on more challenging tasks and found they actually enjoyed the work.
Here are a few of Bryan Goodwin’s Dos and Don’ts for helping your students develop a growth mindset:
OK, I'm really interested in this. I agree, and I wonder about the dos and don'ts. Memorizing (or recognizing) phrases is a first step, but I would have approached this differently: if you truly believe that accomplishment is the result of application, work, and sense of ability to achieve, it seems that our attitude toward students will then mean a lot more than the words do, and that the words will also come more naturally.
Perhaps this is addressed in Goodwin's book! Either way, you've got me interested enough to buy the book. :)
Very well put, Steve! Thanks for commenting.
Thank you for posting, Karen Dweck's work (and that of others) makes complete sense if one believes that learning is an emotional experience. Learning occurs best when emotional investment is at it's core. To call someone smart is not an emotional commitment - it is a static observation of perceived fact. To say to someone that they must have worked hard implies empathy, commitment to that person, and a genuine emotional investment (if the comment is, indeed, genuine) in the person doing the work. The latter, if repeated and fostered with care, will lead to a love of learning in all its forms. Steve is correct when he supposes that "the words will come more naturally" - an emotionally invested teacher will care about what is exchanged and, consequently, be more cognizant of what is said.
Willard: thank you for posting this. It's profound.